Health Benefits of Olive Oil

By Stephen T. Sinatra, M.D., F.A.C.C., F.A.C.N., C.N.S., C.B.T.

I’ve long been an aficionado of olive oil. These days my head is spinning because of a steady outpouring of research showing olive oil’s superb health benefits…

According to Greek mythology, the olive tree was the creation of the goddess Athena, who first planted one out among the rocky grounds of the Acropolis and endowed it with powers to illuminate the darkness, soothe wounds, and provide nourishment.

I don’t know about the veracity of the goddess story, but I do know that few foods can match olive oil’s ability to provide nourishment in the form of a very healthy fat your body needs as well as antioxidants that perform numerous protective functions.

Yes, I’m Italian and have been eating olive oil all my life. But the reason for my bullishness has less to do with that, and more to do with the fact that I am a doctor who preaches good nutrition and optimum health. In this brief article you’ll learn why olive oil fits squarely into my agenda for a healthy lifestyle. And in this follow up article, you’ll learn why you have to be ultra-cautious about the kind of olive oil you buy: not all olive oil is created equally, and some products may be adulterated. The health benefits I describe below relate to extra-virgin olive oil – the preferred form − but unscrupulous suppliers are marketing lesser quality olive oil and calling it extra-virgin. And that’s why you need to read labels carefully. But I diverge….

Boost Your Brain Health with Olive Oil

Benefits of Olive Oil for the Heart, Brain, Body

Goddesses aside, humans have long recognized the healing power of olive oil. Hippocrates, known as “the father of medicine,” was said to have prescribed olive oil for many ailments, including ulcers, cholera, muscular pains, sore gums, and wounds, some 2,500 years ago.

For decades, olive oil has been recognized as an important element in the Mediterranean Diet, the traditional pattern of food eaten by Spaniards, Italians, Greeks, Turks and other peoples living around the Mediterranean basin. The diet (which provides the foundation for my PAMM diet) features fruits, vegetables, fish, olives and olive oil, and a bit of red wine, and is low in meat, sweets, and dairy. Study after study has shown that this diet contributes to heart health and longevity.

Now, it seems research is literally pouring out of the region demonstrating a paramount nutritional and health role for olive oil as an “all-star” in the Mediterranean diet. Studies show that the consumption of olive oil, a fat, is one important reason why Mediterranean populations tend to have much less heart disease than Americans or Northern Europeans; it may also indeed contribute to healthier aging and greater longevity.

In a 2010 review of research, a team of Spanish researchers listed these olive oil benefits:

  • Improves blood pressure, an expression of better endothelial function (the endothelium is the critical inner layer of blood vessels that produces nitric oxide, a compound necessary for keeping blood vessels relaxed and dilated);
  • Inhibits oxidation of LDL cholesterol;
  • Increases protective HDL cholesterol;
  • Inhibits abnormal blood clotting;
  • Contributes to reduction of cancer risk (mainly breast, colorectal, and prostate); and
  • Lowers risk of age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease.

In 2014, researchers from Europe and the U.S. discovered that natural compounds in olive oil (called polyphenols) can specifically enhance the ability of HDL cholesterol to strip away and remove excess cholesterol that accumulates in arterial plaque. This function, called “cholesterol efflux capacity,” has attracted major research attention in recent years as a primary anti-atherosclerosis activity of HDL. A higher blood level has long been considered as a protective factor in general, and now lower efflux capacity is being associated with heart failure and coronary artery disease. In the olive oil study, the researchers found that the polyphenols in the oil promote efflux capacity as well as HDL stability.

What’s So Powerful About Polyphenols?

And here’s more exciting research developments on the olive oil front…

Olive Oil and Genes: More Anti-Inflammatory Action

In a 2010 study, researchers identified nearly a hundred genes related to obesity, diabetes, and blood lipids that were affected in a healthy way by the antioxidant compounds contained in olive oil. Some of those genes, involved intimately in inflammatory processes, were repressed by the olive oil, and that’s a good thing. Keep in mind that uncontrolled inflammation is involved in most common diseases, from cardiovascular disease and diabetes to cancer and auto-immune conditions. So increasing the anti-inflammatory quality of your diet with something like olive oil may be another simple and natural way to protect yourself.

What’s So Special In Olive Oil?

Like any nutritional oil, olive oil has its own particular chemical makeup and this is what makes it indeed so special. First of all, olive oil is rich in a monounsaturated fatty acid called oleic acid that has been linked repeatedly in experiments to beneficial effects against cancer cells as well as to reducing high blood pressure. Next, olive oil contains many compounds with marked physiological benefits. Heading the list are oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, two highly absorbable and extensively studied antioxidants found to have highly protective actions against several diseases, notably cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. These compounds are multi-taskers. Among other things, they promote arterial dilation and integrity, inhibit cholesterol oxidation and platelet aggregation, and appear to have anti-diabetic properties.

A “Super” Mediterranean Diet?

In 2013, the publication of a large Spanish investigation called the Predimed Study revealed that a Mediterranean diet enhanced with extra-virgin olive oil offered superior protection after nearly five years against heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Enhancement meant the addition of four tablespoons a day − about 50 grams of fat! Yet there was no weight gain associated with that extra amount of fat intake. The study involved nearly 7,500 men and women at high cardiovascular risk who were free of cardiovascular disease at the time of enrollment, but had either type 2 diabetes or several common risk factors.

Now get this. The participants in the study assigned to eat the olive oil-enhanced diet had a rate of cardiovascular events 28 to 30 percent less than a comparison group eating a standard Western-type low-fat diet! In a further breakdown of non-diabetic but high-risk participants, the olive oil group had a 40 percent less risk of developing diabetes compared to the low-fat dieters. The researchers noted that the Mediterranean diet overall has dietary components beneficial for alleviating inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance and secretion, all pathogenic factors in the diabetes process. Extra-virgin olive oil, with its potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, is clearly a major element in this protective activity against diabetes. Another Spanish study found that olive oil reduces triglycerides, a blood fat associated with the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Combined, these results are spectacular. The Predamid study is the first large randomized trial to show that a Mediterranean-type diet can actually – in real life − reduce cardiovascular events and thus serve the purpose of primary cardiovascular prevention. Primary prevention means stopping initial heart attacks or strokes.

Mediterranean Diet Better Than Low-fat Diets

The results from the study were so striking to me that I contacted the lead Spanish researcher, Miguel Martinez-Gonzalez, M.D., Ph.D., an expert in preventive medicine and public health at the University of Navarra in Pamplona, and invited him to serve on an American College of Nutrition panel I moderated in 2013 on the subject of cholesterol, fats, and statins.

Dr. Martinez-Gonzalez strongly believes that the so-called low-fat diet, promoted for decades in the U.S., fails to prevent cardiovascular disease. By comparison, he says, the Mediterranean diet has a great track record for not only effectiveness, but for sustainability, nutritional quality, and taste. Moreover, he says, the protective effects of the traditional Mediterranean diet appear to be even greater when adding extra-virgin olive oil, as his studies indicate.

In an earlier 2013 study, he conducted a review of the medical literature that evaluated the association between overall dietary patterns and the risk of metabolic syndrome, a widespread forerunner to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The findings showed a clearly higher risk from Westernized diets full of meat and meat products, snacks, baked desserts and sugar-sweetened beverages. The Mediterranean diet, by comparison, had a much lower risk, with its emphasis on olive oil, nuts, and fish with a high mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid content, dietary fiber, and bioactive natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds.


© Stephen Sinatra, MD. All rights reserved.

Leave a Reply


  1. Richard Kurylski, PhD

    on October 30, 2014 at 10:26 pm

    Why are there so many basic contradictions in what is called a healthy diet? Who is right and who is wrong? Dr Ornish is of a different opinion, Dr Esselstyn rejects any oil. There is a proverb saying that one’s man’s food is another man’s poison. There must be something to it.
    Ayurveda speaks of mind-body types and here in the West a long -time stydy has been developed by Bill Wolcott creating Metabolic Typing, which unfortunately, is not well known. It is a pity, because, although there are some argueable points, I suppose it is closer to the truth. I will recommand his excellent lecture A conclusion is that there’s no such a thing like healthy food for all of us but it depends on our metabolic type.

  2. Richard Kurylski, PhD

    on October 30, 2014 at 10:42 pm

    I would also strongly recommend an article from Wolcott’s site. Like everything in our lives, I would rather maintain commonsense and will never be fully for say anti-oxidants or totally against carbs because every cloud has its silver lining and everything that looks so positive must contain some hidden negative effect that only later on comes to the fore. Concerning fats, a new discovery speaks of fatty acid hydroxyl fatty acids, or FAHFAs, which are also anti-inflammatory and are broken down in human body.

  3. Bugg

    on October 30, 2014 at 11:19 pm

    Thank you for such a great informative article.

  4. Jean Boutwell

    on October 31, 2014 at 1:01 pm

    Which brand name is best ?

  5. Bernice

    on October 31, 2015 at 11:58 pm

    Please send me Healthy Heart Recipesf44

  6. vera townsenf

    on January 28, 2016 at 6:05 pm

    Please send me recipes for a healthy lifestyle which have extra virgin olive oil.

  7. RicardoRichard

    on April 6, 2016 at 4:27 pm

    First of all we must ask a question: what is the Mediterranean diet? Because I infer that there’s a special Mediterranean diet (Md) just for medical / nutritional analysis and another one – an actual Mediterranean diet that Tom Dick and Harry (say José Luis, Mario Antonio and Paco ) usually follow. I suppose I know a thing or two about it after having lived on the Iberian Peninsula for over 32 years. Perhaps you are right concerning a traditional Md, which is not in force anymore as it were, at least at the level of cities. If you are sure that the
    Mediterranean diet still holds – you are living in 1970s. Or even earlier.

    I will not repeat all that has been said here and other places (olive oil, salads and fruits, fish,etc), which is true, but this truth is only partial.

    What is an actual Md?

    Breakfast – some cookies with an expresso coffee, and usually having them while running to work stopping at a bar on the way. Or no breakfast at all, only an expresso.

    Lunch at 2pm: red meat (don’t think that for instance a beef is grass fed -perhaps in 10% it is), pork or poultry, which is not free-range, perhaps in 10% it is) usually fried (not even in olive oil,which is wrong too, in say 90% but in a bad omega 6 liquid vegetarian oils) or grilled meat:; or fish. In most cases around 200g each + a beer (330ml) or wine (250-300 ml). And French fries made in any cooking oil (especially Omega-6 almost never olive oil – it is relatively too expensive for that purpose, or with fish – boiled potatoes / white rice. rich salad, yes, it is with 100% olive oil but not always extra virgin. And very often one eats one’s fill. And to cap it all as a dessert pieces of very sweet cakes, chocolate mousse or ice-cream that little by little supersede good fruits that are still there, fortunately. but less often consumed. And to finish with an expresso of course.

    Dinner is at 9 or 10 pm or at weekends even later at 11 pm which is roughly speaking a repetition of lunch.

    As seeing is believing, once doctors and nutritionists who speak about this healthy diet experience it themselves, they will radically change their opinion right away. Because Md belongs to the past and only became a myth which is perpetrating itself.

    I surmise that for nutritional analysis there must be some artificial (meaning not a normal diet) Md, ie a cherry-picking diet for the purposes of a research and showing the world how excellent it is.

    Don’t forget , hamburgers and pizzas came to the Iberian Peninsula some 30 years ago and a new generation loves it. No wonder – the Spaniards are becoming fatter and fatter.

    Will that help you demystify the famous Md? I hope it will.

  8. JPindiorski

    on April 22, 2016 at 4:34 pm

    According to Dr Dean Ornish and Dr.Caldwell Esselstyn’s landmark heart disease reversal research, their plant based, low fat, NO OIL diets prevents and reverses coronary heart plaque and blockages. They’ve proven this by documenting patients before and after reversals with heart catherizations. So even though I love olive oil….no thanks. I’ll go with proven science based evidence.

  9. Frances Smith

    on April 9, 2018 at 3:07 pm

    I am new to including Extra Virgin Unfiltered First Press Dark glass Estate made, etc olive oil. I follow the Mediterranean Diet 95%. I’m exceptionally healthy, hike 3 miles a day and bike 15 minutes per day. Weigh 130 lbs soaking wet. Had two separate Stent procedures, one in 2009 and the other in 2013. Average BP reading now 130/70 with Amlodipine 2.5 . I make my own homemade French bread, (so no commercial chemicals added) to scoop up the olive/jalapeno/garlic/olive oil DIP. Took me a couple of days to appreciate the bitter initial taste of
    the high end olive oil. It’s now so delicious that I can’t wait to have it again but keep the consumption down
    to once a day. (Approx. amt.: 1 typical roll + 3 TB Dip) . My problem: Immediately after consuming the super-yummy combo of delicious bread and dip, I start having heart fibrillations that last about an hour.. That’s not supposed to happen. Everything medical I’ve read suggests superior results. Any Medical Person care to comment? Thank you.

  10. HeartMD Editor

    on April 10, 2018 at 11:22 am

    Hi Frances,

    It may be that consuming that much oil at one time is too much for your system. Try cutting it down to no more than 1 tablespoon of oil.

  11. Patricia

    on March 4, 2020 at 5:49 pm

    What does Dr. Sinatra think about Dr. Dean Ornish’s plant based diet, low fat, no meat, chicken, pork or seafood which is high in Cholesterol? I am 73. Diagnosed with severe aortic stenosis, calcium in mitral valve, a little plaque in both carotid arteries, and have sleep apnea. I want to do all I can to stay healthy before having surgeries. Everyone is saying something different and it is very confusing. I would appreciate a response please. Thank you very much. Blessings.

  12. HeartMD Editor

    on March 5, 2020 at 12:43 pm

    Dr. Sinatra agrees that whole, plant-based foods should be a majority of a healthy diet, but he embraces a larger amount of healthy fats per day than Dr. Ornish. Dr. Sinatra’s diet plan is called the PAMM (Pan-Asian Modified Mediterranean) Diet and is made up of 40-45% low-glycemic carbohydrates (veggies, fruits, legumes), 35-40% healthy fats like olive oil, nuts and avocado, and 20-25% lean proteins like chicken, beef, and seafood. Dr. Sinatra is not against otherwise healthy foods that contain cholesterol, as dietary cholesterol doesn’t increase your cholesterol levels. You can read more about the PAMM Diet at and download a free ebook about it at Best wishes!

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