How to Protect Against Cold, Flu and Other Viruses

By Stephen T. Sinatra, M.D., F.A.C.C., F.A.C.N., C.N.S., C.B.T.

The annual cold and flu season is just around the corner and that means it’s time to build up your resistance to viruses out there like the flu. To bolster yourself for the seasonal challenge ahead, here are some anti-bug basics and do’s and don’ts:

Love Thy Immune System

You better! It’s what keeps you alive and healthy. Your immune system is not located in one single place in your body, like your brain or heart. It’s equally as important, but spread out all over your body, from the tip of your toes to the top of your head. This defense system is a complex, diffuse, and integrated intelligence network of organs (like your skin and liver), tissues (mucous membranes are an example), cells (such as white blood cells), cellular products like antibodies, and, down at the subatomic level, electrons. They all work together, an army of specialized units, in a wondrous around-the-clock synchrony designed to protect you against pathogens, toxins, excesses, poor lifestyle choices, and stress.

Adequate Rest

You’ve heard it before and you’ll hear it from me repeatedly because it’s so basic. Never lose track of the fact that your body, including your immune system, operates on cycles of rest and activity. Too much activity and not enough rest is a ticket for trouble, and in this case, weakened resistance. Many studies show that not enough sleep suppresses the immune system and undermines your ability to fend off microbial infections. I recall a 2009 study in which poor or shorter sleep in the weeks preceding an exposure to a rhinovirus (the most common viral infective agent and the cause of the common cold) were associated with lower resistance to illness. Here are some helpful tips for a better nights sleep this cold season.


Worry, anxiety, anger, depression, or any emotional conflict effectively drains the immune system and leaves you more vulnerable. A major 2012 study found that people with chronic stress are more likely to develop persistent cold symptoms than individuals who are stress-free. Chronic stress overproduces the stress hormone cortisol, which then fails to appropriately regulate inflammatory responses in the body. An inflammatory response lingers long after the cold virus is gone and creates continuing symptoms. We all have stress in our lives. We just need to find ways to defuse it.

Be Mr. or Ms. Clean

Wash your hands with soap regularly and often. Pathogens are everywhere, and in the course of a day’s activities, we constantly touch many objects and may make contact with many people. Without realizing it, we touch our nose, mouth, and eyes. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, hand washing is an important measure to prevent getting sick and spreading germs. Doing so reduces respiratory illnesses, like colds, in the general population by 21 percent. Whenever I used to see patients who were sniffling, sneezing, coughing, or rubbing itchy eyes, I made it a point after each visit to wash my hands before seeing my next patient. I didn’t want to be a middleman transferring germs from one person to the next, or upping my own risk of infection. Part of my daily routine today is filling my bathroom sink with warm water and adding a half teaspoon of sea salt. I immerse my face, blink my eyes, and gently sniff the water into my nostrils. This simple facial dip helps zap microorganisms present in these common entrances to the body. I also vigorously clean my fingernails, another primary germ carrier.

Eat an Anti-Bug Diet

As part of my heart health strategy, I have always recommended the Pan-Asian-Modified-Mediterranean (PAMM)diet, which includes seaweed, a source of more than fifty minerals. Seaweed, in fact, contains a higher concentration of magnesium, iron, iodine, and sodium than any other kind of food. The diet contains the right kinds of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, with plenty of fruits and vegetables, olive oil and garlic, to benefit your immune system as well. Eat homemade chicken soup frequently, particularly if you come down with signs of a cold. It is a great immune booster, and even more so when reinforced with ample garlic, a natural antibiotic and antiviral remedy that has been used worldwide for centuries. Don’t forget to include fresh herbs like rosemary and thyme in your meals – some of the most powerful immune boosters are right in your garden!

Avoid sugar and junk food. Sugar inhibits phagocytosis, a process in which viruses and bacteria are destroyed by white blood cells. Minimize, if not eliminate, your alcohol and caffeine consumption.


Earthing also known as Grounding, means reconnecting with the natural and gentle electric charge on the surface of the Earth. This can easily be done by going outside barefoot, or even more practical, by having bare skin contact with grounded and conductive sheets, mats, bands, or patches while you sleep, relax, or work indoors. Although there are no studies yet to show a link to fewer infections, Earthing can reduce inflammation, help defuse stress and normalize the stress hormone cortisol, as well as improve blood flow throughout the body, benefits that I believe substantially contribute to a stronger immune system.

Sunshine (or Vitamin D Supplementation)

Your bare skin has the natural ability to convert sunlight into vitamin D, a critical hormone-like substance that, among many, many other benefits, exerts an absolutely fundamental role in maintaining immune system effectiveness and protection against upper respiratory infections, including the common cold, flu, and pneumonia. Fall and winter, however, mean less available sunlight, particularly in the northeast where I live. But many people, even if they live in the Sunbelt, don’t get out into the sunshine enough. So, no matter where you live, make an effort to get out in the mid-day sun (10 a.m. to 2 p.m.) for 20 minutes or so to stoke your vitamin D supply, and, as insurance, supplement with 2,000 international units of vitamin D3. Experts increasingly regard vitamin D as “a new anti-infective agent” that can impact a broad array of pathogens, and, as I have already reported, helps reduce infections and antibiotic use, even among the more susceptible elderly population.

Nutritional Supplements

In addition to vitamin D3, there are many potent nutritional supplements that can power up your immune system and help keep it running optimally. Here’s a rundown on some of my favorites:

Multi vitamin and mineral – Everyone stands to benefit from a high-quality formula loaded with basic vitamins and minerals, some of which may be in short supply in a typical Western diet.

Garlic – As an Italian, I have great respect not just for the flavor boost of garlic in food but also for the powerful boost it provides to the immune system. As a supplement, look for high allicin content. Allicin is the potent sulfur compound in garlic with the knockout punch. I recommend 1,000 mg a day of garlic. You may develop a garlic breath, but if that is a problem, look for odorless products.

Vitamin C – Decades ago, Linus Pauling popularized the cold-and-flu-protecting properties of vitamin C. Nothing has changed my mind on the value of this supremely important vitamin. For prevention, take 1,000 mg a day. For more information on applying vitamin C’s amazing ability to combat illness, I highly recommend the fact-filled book Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases, and Toxins, by Thomas Levy, M.D.

Licorice Root Tincture – Twenty or so drops under the tongue twice a day. Licorice root has long been used as a folk or traditional remedy for stomach ulcers, bronchitis, and sore throat, as well as infections caused by viruses, such as hepatitis. Just a cautionary note on licorice root: don’t take it longer than 10 days and check with your doctor when considering using it if you have high blood pressure (it has the potential to raise blood pressure because of an altering effect on potassium in the body).

• Resveratrol – Naturally found in the skin of red grapes, this compound helps prevent virus replication. Recommendation dosage: 250 mg a day.

• Curcumin – This celebrated extract from the curry spice turmeric has been repeatedly shown to have a wide and powerful inhibiting effect on many types of microbes, including influenza viruses and herpes simplex virus. Take 250 mg routinely, increase to 1,000 mg if you are coming down with something. It is interesting to note that the combination of resveratrol and curcumin has been featured in a number of studies showing a synergistic, that is, a heightened effect together against cancer cells.

N-acetyl Cysteine (NAC) – This most important amino acid serves as a building block for glutathione, your body’s most natural immune-supporting antioxidant. Research has shown that 1,000 mg a day can significantly decrease the frequency of influenza-like episodes, as well as severity and length of time confined to bed.

If you take licorice root tincture, and high-dose resveratrol, curcumin, and NAC, it is advisable to use them for four weeks and then skip one week during the viral epidemic cycle.

Don’t Fall Into the Antibiotic Trap

Too many people do. They run to their doctors and ask for an antibiotic at the first sign of a cold or flu. It’s typically a mistake, a treatment that can, in fact, set you up for another bout of illness, and your doctor should know better. Colds, the flu, most sore throats, and bronchitis are caused by viruses, microorganisms that invade healthy cells, multiply, and spread. And here’s what people don’t realize: ANTIBIOTICS DO NOT FIGHT VIRUSES. Worse, they can increase the risk of a resistant infection down the road. What’s more, they deplete the very important benign bacteria – probiotics, as they are called – that reside in your intestine and form a major element of your immune system. Say after me: antibiotics kill bacteria – not viruses.

What About the Flu Shot?

You may have been wondering why I haven’t mentioned the flu shot even once in this article. That’s because – for many folks – I don’t believe in it as a primary means of prevention. From my observation over the years those who have gotten shots experience colds and flu as much as people who have passed on them. Moreover, the research I’ve read clearly indicates that flu shot is not very effective – it was estimated to protect against the flu in 47% of people during the 2018-2019 season, and just 36% during the 2017-2018 season.

Flu Shot and Other Ways to Prevent the Flu


© 2014, 2018, 2019 Stephen Sinatra, MD. All rights reserved.

Leave a Reply


  1. Richard Kurylski, PhD

    on October 23, 2014 at 8:28 pm

    I have mentioned that already in a different place but nobody tried to tackle the problem. I was astonished to hear that garlic is poison. The words come from Dr. Robert Beck, an inventor, who unfortunately is not among us any more. Please listen to his arguments here:
    Besides, doctors of alternative and integrative medicine very often resort to Ayurveda as a justification for their arguments. As far as I know, garlic according to Ayurveda is not even considered as food at all.

  2. Virginia Bebee

    on October 24, 2014 at 12:52 am

    DR.Sinatra Thanks for the good info on ebola. I:am working on building up my immune system,full force. So i have many good supplements for help, no bronchial help .I can not take pineapple& licorice. take care Virginia Bebee

  3. Gregory D. MELLOTT

    on October 26, 2014 at 12:01 am

    Thanks for the information. I wonder what you think of the herb Astragalus. I’ve personally have noticed a very significant difference with it when trying to fight a flu about a year ago. Strangely, it even eventually got me over a bad case of hip soreness that acted like the sciatic nerve acting up. I came to the following conclusion: there are some bugs that use your bones and joints to hide in. This is logical since it can be to their advantage most bugs produce a more acid (low pH) environment as they grow and reproduce. The higher pH of bone reacts with this acidity and helps the bug hide from the immune system’s active response more easily by using our body’s own materials to hide inside.

  4. Gregory D. MELLOTT

    on October 26, 2014 at 10:00 am

    Sorry about duplicates. Please remove them. Page kept asking me to re-enter the ‘symbol on image’ the way I was taking it. And my comment was gone, so I tried again…

  5. Don Raymond

    on November 2, 2014 at 4:22 pm

    Thanks for all the great information on protecting against viruses, I also make sure to take extra probiotics.

  6. Jack

    on January 26, 2019 at 10:07 am

    Any of the nutritional supplements appropriate for kids? At what dosages? Thank you!

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